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The Long-Term Climate Risk Index (2017) ranked Pakistan as the seventh most vulnerable country to climate change. Glaciers are melting due to the rising temperatures and as a result the sea water levels are rising resulting in sea intrusion. Mangrooves cutting is further contributing to the sea intrusion. In addition, the fish, shrimpa and other fauna and flora are loosing their habitats.
The coastline of Pakistan spans a total area of 885 km, of which 241 km covers the province of Sindh on the south eastern side and 664 km within the province of Balochistan. The entire coastline of Sindh is densely covered with mangroves, whereas that of Balochistan is barren except for a few small patches in Miani Hor, Kalmat Hor and Gwater bay. The use of mangrove forests as site of human settlements and their reclamation for other conversion purposes have been a persistent danger to the existence of said forests in later period along the Pakistan coast. Mangrove wood is resistant to rot and insects, making it extremely valuable. Many coastal and indigenous communities rely on this wood for construction material as well as for fuel. These communities also collect medicinal plants from mangrove ecosystems and use mangrove leaves as animal fodder. Recently, the forests have also been commercially harvested for pulp, wood chip, and charcoal production.
The focus of Oxfam GROW campaign is Sindh costal community, which presently faces the most risks from variability in monsoon rains, floods and extended droughts resulting in food, income and residential insecurity. About 79% of the population lives below the poverty line. Communities that previously grew rice, are forced to find alternative sources of income due to salinization of the land. Some people have started to cut mangroves, which they sell as charcoal. Mangroove cutting and rising sea water levels are causing sea intrusion, thus aggravating the situation. Nearby companies also cut mangroves, to make a profit. Many coastal communities, including women food producers are resorting to climate-related migration, as they no longer have enough land for residential and livelihood purposes.
General context of climate change impact in Pakistan. According to some statistics, between 1997 and 2016, Pakistan suffered from 141 extreme weather events and lost an average of 523.1 lives per year due to climate change effects. The super-flood in 2010 killed 1,600 people, affecting an area of 38,600 square kilometers and caused a financial loss of more than $10 billion. The 2015 heatwave in Karachi led to the death of more than 1,200 people. As average global temperatures rise, impacts across the country will vary widely, from glacial melting in the North to an increase in sea levels in southern coastal areas. For a country where more than 50 percent of the population is directly or otherwise dependent on agricultural activities, the impacts of this would be serious.
Political context. Pakistan’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDCs) submitted to the 2015 Paris Agreement, aims to reduce up to 20 percent of its 2030 projected GHG emissions, using international grants for adaptation and mitigation of approximately $40 billion. The Paris Agreement commits countries to pledge not to just keep global warming “well below two degrees Celsius” but also to “pursue efforts” to limit warming to 1.5 degrees by 2018. The government expects to get international grants worth between $7 and $14 billion each year to be able to adapt to climate change, and the Senate passed a policy in 2017 that called upon the creation of Pakistan Climate Change Authority to manage said funds. However, there is little to no knowledge of any such funding from the GCF (Global Climate Fund) to help in the mitigation and adaptation against climate change.
Campaign context. The economic importance of mangroves in Pakistan largely comes from the fishery resources that they harbor. An estimated 80% of the fish caught in coastal waters spend at least part of their life cycle as fry in the mangrove creeks or depend on the food web within the mangrove ecosystem. Shrimp fishery is the major fish export of mangroves, accounting for 68% of the $100 million of the foreign exchange the country earns from fisheries exports. Mangroves provide multiple benefits, from carbon storage and shoreline protection to food and energy for natural resource-dependent coastal communities. However, they are coming under increasing pressure from climate change, coastal development, and aquaculture. Hence, there is need to protect food producer rights for land, livelihoods, food and residential security
Having different climatic and physical characteristics, the Sindh coast receives the tail end of the southwest monsoon and is rich in natural resources and thus the focus of much socio-economic activity. The coastal areas are characterized by oceanic waters and scattered mangrove strands. The Sindh coast has a combination of mangrove forests, mudflats, and sandy beaches. The coastline of Pakistan is a highly productive fishing area due to the presence of an active delta and seasonal streams. Pakistan’s coastal resources are extremely important both in terms of biodiversity and economic activity generated through industry which contributes significantly to provincial and national economic development. The key vulnerabilities in the coastal areas are the erratic precipitation patterns causing pluvial floods during the monsoon season, large-scale cutting of mangrove due to its use for charcoal and land degradation due to sea intrusion (up to 25km inland). The combined effect of this is leading to food, income and residential insecurity. Some communities, especially women food producers are reported to also resort to climate-related migration, when they no longer have enough land for food, residential and livelihood purposes.
The province of Sindh is the most urbanized and second-largest province of Pakistan in terms of population. The Sindh budgetary profile is based on the Sindh Finance Department’s publication, the Annual Budget Statement for four years 2011/12 to 2014/15 is focusing on revised total budgetary expenditures, the size of the budget increased from PKR 549.6 billion to PKR 676.6 billion at an AAGR of 7.1 percent. The annual growth in expenditures was in the range of 4.4-25.2 percent during the last three years. The average annual growth in nominal expenditures is average national inflation rate of 8.1 percent recorded.
The objective of this study is to assess the climate finance allocations and expenditures in Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Forest sectors in Sindh. Following are the key objectives of the assignment;
The timeline of the assignment is 30 working days starting from signing of agreement.
The Consultant is required to report to Project Manager, Food Security & Value Chain Development
How to Apply:
Please send your detailed Proposals and Quotations on following Oxfam official postal address:
Plot # 2, Street 11-A, Idrees Market, Sector F-10/2, Islamabad
Please note it is mandatory to mention the Consultancy Title on sealed envelope or else it will not be considered for further assessment
Oxfam’s vision is a just world without poverty: a world in which people can influence decisions that affect their lives, enjoy their rights, and assume their responsibilities as full citizens of a world in which all human beings are valued and treated equally. Oxfam in Pakistan has been working in the country since 1973. In the Pakistan, our goal is to contribute to the eradication of poverty by supporting women and other vulnerable groups in saving lives and building livelihoods, enhancing their resilience to crises, shocks and stresses, and making their voices heard to hold duty-bearers accountable.