Background & Description
  1. introduction

Oxfam is an international confederation of 19 organizations working together with partners and local communities in more than 65 countries. One person in three in the world lives in poverty. Oxfam is determined to change that world by mobilizing the power of people against poverty.  Around the globe, Oxfam works to find practical, innovative ways for people to lift themselves out of poverty and live a life with dignity. We save lives and help rebuild livelihoods when crisis strikes. We campaign so that the voices of the poor influence the local and global decisions that affect them. In all we do, Oxfam works with partner organizations and alongside vulnerable women and men to end the injustices that cause poverty. Oxfam also working together with local partners, private sector, academia and above all working in collaboration with relevant government bodies and ministries in putting its supreme efforts as a strong advocate to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

Pakistan has a big agricultural sector - accounting for 45% of the workforce, 21% of GDP and 70% of total export earnings. The Long-Term Climate Risk Index (2017) ranked Pakistan as the seventh most vulnerable country to climate change.

The focus of the programme is in Sindh, which presently faces the most risks from variability in monsoon rains, floods and extended droughts resulting in food, income and residential insecurity. About 79% of the population lives below the poverty line. Communities that previously grew rice, are forced to find alternative sources of income due to salinization of the land. Some people have started to cut mangroves, which they sell as charcoal, but which is causing more sea intrusion, thus aggravating the situation. Nearby companies also cut mangroves, to make a profit.  Many coastal communities, including women food producers are resorting to climate-related migration, as they no longer have enough land for residential and livelihood purposes. 

  1. Background

General context of climate change impact in Pakistan. According to some statistics, between 1997 and 2016, Pakistan suffered from 141 extreme weather events and lost an average of 523.1 lives per year due to climate change effects. The super-flood in 2010 killed 1,600 people, affecting an area of 38,600 square kilometers and caused a financial loss of more than $10 billion. The 2015 heatwave in Karachi led to the death of more than 1,200 people. As average global temperatures rise, impacts across the country will vary widely, from glacial melting in the North to an increase in sea levels in southern coastal areas. Climate Change profile of Pakistan, the sea level is expected to rise by an additional 60 centimeters by end of the century. Such as, in Sindh where due to mangrove cutting, communities are migrating temporally and mostly permanently. For a country where more than 50 percent of the population is directly or otherwise dependent on agricultural activities, the impacts of this would be serious.

Political context. Pakistan’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDCs) submitted to the 2015 Paris Agreement, aims to reduce up to 20 percent of its 2030 projected GHG emissions, using international grants for adaptation and mitigation of approximately $40 billion. The Paris Agreement commits countries to pledge not to just keep global warming “well below two degrees Celsius” but also to “pursue efforts” to limit warming to 1.5 degrees by 2018. The government expects to get international grants worth between $7 and $14 billion each year to be able to adapt to climate change, and the Senate passed a policy in 2017 that called upon the creation of Pakistan Climate Change Authority to manage said funds. However, there is little to no knowledge of any such funding from the GCF (Global Climate Fund) to help in the mitigation and adaptation against climate change.

Campaign context. The economic importance of mangroves in Pakistan largely comes from the fishery resources that they harbor. An estimated 80% of the fish caught in coastal waters spend at least part of their life cycle as fry in the mangrove creeks or depend on the food web within the mangrove ecosystem. Shrimp fishery is the major fish export of mangroves, accounting for 68% of the $100 million of the foreign exchange the country earns from fisheries exports. Mangroves provide multiple benefits, from carbon storage and shoreline protection to food and energy for natural resource-dependent coastal communities. However, they are coming under increasing pressure from climate change, coastal development, and aquaculture. Hence, there is need to protect food producer rights for land, livelihoods, food and residential security

Around 25 percent of Pakistan’s coastline lies in Sindh province stretching approximately 230 KM along 3 districts i.e. Karachi, Thatta and Badin. Having different climatic and physical characteristics, the Sindh coast receives the tail end of the southwest monsoon and is rich in natural resources and thus the focus of much socio-economic activity.

The coastal areas are characterized by oceanic waters and scattered mangrove strands. The Sindh coast has a combination of mangrove forests, mudflats, and sandy beaches. The coastline of Pakistan is a highly productive fishing area due to the presence of an active delta and seasonal streams.

Pakistan’s coastal resources are extremely important both in terms of biodiversity and economic activity generated through industry which contributes significantly to provincial and national economic development.

The key vulnerabilities in the coastal areas are the erratic precipitation patterns causing pluvial floods during the monsoon season, large-scale cutting of mangrove due to its use for charcoal and land degradation due to sea intrusion (up to 25km inland). The combined effect of this is leading to food, income and residential insecurity caused for climate Sheros (women food producers). Some communities, especially women food producers are reported to also resort to climate-related migration, when they no longer have enough land for foo, residential and livelihood purposes.

  1. Objectives

Following are the key objectives of the assignment;

  • What is the key income generating activities?
  • What are the key crops in the areas for food production?
  • How much is the forest cover? How much forest is lost?
  • How much land is lost?
  • What are the primary vulnerabilities with regards to human livelihood, animal life and plants?
  • What are the new adaptations? Humans, animals and plants?
  • What are the specific requirements for adaptations?
  • To assess the vulnerabilities, risk and hazards of coastal community whose livelihoods, food and residential security is based on mangroves.
  • To assess the adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities and prepare a suggestion for local adaptation plan of actions for target district Thatta, Badin and Karachi.
  • To assess the gaps in Sindh Provincial Climate Change Policy and devise a resilient road map for agriculture, fisheries and forest sector of policy.
  1. SPECIFIC DELIVERABLES
  • Submit inception report along with detailed plan and timelines. Oxfam will provide guidelines for tools and methodology.
  • Develop tools and instruments required to apply in the report.
  • Develop and present power point presentation in the consultation workshops.
  • Submit final consolidated report of the assignment incorporating the suggestions of consultation workshop.
  1. TIMELINE

The timeline of the assignment is 30 working days starting from signing of agreement.

  1. Reporting

The Consultant is required to report to Project Manager, Food Security & Value Chain Development  

  1. selection CRITERIA

The proposals will be evaluated through a competitive selection process. Following criteria will be followed.

  • Company’s/Consultant’s Profile:                                                                30 points
  • Sample of Previous Work:                                                                         20 points
  • Proposed Budget:                                                                                     20 points
  • Approach and Methodology:                                                                      30 points
Requirements and Skills
  1. SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES
  • The Consultant should have at least 10 years of experience in Agriculture and Biodiversity in coastal areas (mangroves)
  • At least 5 years of experience in similar experiences in assessment of Vulnerability Risk Assessment
  • Enjoy good liaison with relevant government stakeholders.
  • Well versed with participatory process.
  • Excellent report writing skills.
  • Good communication and interpersonal skills.
  • Ability to manage multiple tasks to meet deadlines.
  1.  
How to Apply

How to Apply:

Please send your detailed Proposals and Quotations on following Oxfam official postal address:

HR Officer

Plot # 2, Street 11-A, Idrees Market, Sector F-10/2, Islamabad

Please note it is mandatory to mention the Consultancy Title on sealed envelope or else  it will not be considered for further assessment

  1. Proposal and Financial Quotation against TOR's (attached)
  2. Cv in case of individual / organization profile in case of firm
About Organization

Oxfam’s vision is a just world without poverty: a world in which people can influence decisions that affect their lives, enjoy their rights, and assume their responsibilities as full citizens of a world in which all human beings are valued and treated equally. Oxfam in Pakistan has been working in the country since 1973. In the Pakistan, our goal is to contribute to the eradication of poverty by supporting women and other vulnerable groups in saving lives and building livelihoods, enhancing their resilience to crises, shocks and stresses, and making their voices heard to hold duty-bearers accountable.